The Association Between Video Gaming and Psychological Functioning-Function Gaming Batikslot

Video gaming is a popular leisure activity, with more than two billion gamers around the world ( Newzoo, 2017). However, the media as well as experts have highlighted the hazards of playing too much video. In the current study we set out to clarify the connection between gaming and players, their psychological health. Surveys about personality and psychological health as well as gaming habits were given to 2734 participants (2,377 males; 357 females, M age = 23.06, SD age = 5.91). Results showed a moderate negative relationship between video games that cause problems and psychological performance with respect to emotional symptoms, affectivity as well as self-esteem, coping and affectivity. Moreover, gamers’ reasons for playing and their preferred game genres were differentially related to psychological functioning, with the most notable findings for distraction-motivated players as well as action game players. Further studies are required to determine whether these mental health risks are a result of the causes or effects of gaming.


Gaming on video is a well-liked leisure activity for adult gamers ( Pew Research Center 2018,). Gaming time has grown gradually, going from 5.1 hours per week in 2011 to 6.5 hours per week in 2017 ( The Nielsen Company The Nielsen Company, 2017.). Video games have been proven to provide some advantages including improving focus, multitasking in addition to working memory; however, it also come with a cost when used often. Because they spend most of their time playing and video gaming, people who are addicted to it could be at risk of displaying less academic and professional achievement and problems with their peers and less social abilities ( Mihara and Higuchi in 2017,). On the other aspect, gaming on video is widespread and can have certain predispositions as well as repercussions. However, there is little information about the relationship between various gaming behaviors and psychological functioning. This research seeks to provide insight into these crucial connections through a vast sample.

A video game can be described by the term “a game which we play thanks to an audiovisual apparatus and which can be based on a story” ( Esposito 2005). In the past several years, there has been an increase in the volume of research conducted by scientists on games played on video has grown (e.g., Ferguson (2015); Calvert et al. 2017, 2017.; Hamari and Keronen 2017,). Most of scientific studies within this field of study have been focused on the scope of video games and its numerous correlations. Some researchers have highlighted the benefits of games and suggested therapeutic applications of video games (Primack and co. 2012; Granic et al. 2014; Colder Carras et al. (2018)) Others are intrigued by the possible dangers (Anderson and co. (2010); Muller and Wolfling, 2017).

Parents and professionals might be concerned about their overly playing children becoming “addicted.” However, the danger of addictive and problematic video games go beyond the time spent playing (in weeks of hours; Skoric and others. 2009). Additionally, it covers issues such as addiction, lack of control, and the negative effects of gaming too much. Although it’s an open question whether video games with a problem ought to be considered a behavior-related addiction, however, its classification as an illness of the mind has been established following the publication of the DSM-5 in 2013. In the DSM-5 The American Psychiatric Association (2013) defined Internet Gaming Disorder with specific diagnostic criteria that closely resemble Gambling Disorder. The decision has generally been endorsed by numerous experts (e.g., Petry et al. 2014) however, it has generated controversy. Researchers have voiced their displeasure over the selection of diagnostic criteria, as well as the unclear concept of an Internet Gaming Disorder concept which excludes offline gaming from being linked to using addictive substances (e.g., Griffiths and others. in 2016; Bean et and. 2017,).

A lot of studies, review literature, as well as meta-analyses have focused on factors that contribute to problematic gaming. Typically, it is viewed as a continuum of addiction, with the latter that is, at the high end of the spectrum (e.g., Ferguson and co. 2011; Kuss and Griffiths, 2012). The extent of addictive gaming has been shown to be linked to personality traits like lower confidence in oneself ( Ko et al. 2005) and low self-efficacy ( Jeong and Kim 2011) and anxiety or anger ( Mehroof and Griffiths 2010) also in the case of clinical anxiety disorders and depression ( Wang et al. (2018)). The potential negative effects of using video games are also being studied with a lack of friends from life (Kowert and colleagues, 2014a); lack of friends (Kowert. 2014a) stress, maladaptive coping (Milani et al. in 2018,) and lower levels of levels of psychosocial well-being as well as loneliness (Lemmens et al.. in 2011) Psychosomatic disorders (Muller and … 2015; Milani et al. 2015; Milani et al. (2018)) as well as lower academic performance (Chiu et al. 2004; Gentile, 2009). Effects sizes vary in the various studies ( Ferguson et al. (2011)). There may be gender and age-related differences in video gaming behavior which could pose a risk to gaming on video was more prevalent for gamers of males than women (e.g., Greenberg and co. (2010); Estevez et al. 2017, 2017) as well as in young gamers ( Rehbein et al. (2016)).

Alongside investigating the issues with gaming and its relationship to psychological functioning and psychological functioning, it is important to look at the reasons gamers use video games. People play video games for a variety of motives ( Ryan et al. 2006; Yee, 2006; Yee,) for instance, to get away from everyday stress or to enjoy the relationships they’ve made through their virtual environment. Gaming that is harmful to their health has been proven to be linked to a variety of reasons to play, including the need to escape and cope ( Hussain and Griffiths, 2009; Schneider et, and. in 2018, 2018) as well as interaction with others ( Laconi et al. 2017) as well as satisfaction with oneself ( Ng and Wiemer-Hastings 2005). The ability to cope ( Laconi et al. 2017) as well as competitiveness, social interaction and were the most important motivations to play for males, but not so much among women ( Lucas and Sherry 2004). There were mixed results regarding age-related variations ( Greenberg et al. 2010) however, younger gamers were driven to play video games by interactions with friends ( Hilgard et al. (2013)). However, currently, it’s not clear how much people’s different motives to play video games are in a different way to their psychological state.

In addition to examining the connections between problematic gaming and psychological health and between motivations for playing video games and mental functioning, it is important to consider the games people are drawn to. The factors that determine preferences for specific games (e.g. simulation and strategic, and action and role-playing) include cognitive improvement (Dobrowolski and colleagues. (2015); Bediou et al. (2018)) as well as the amount of time engaging in (Lemmens and Hendriks 2016. Rehbein and others… 2016). in 2016) and symptoms of psychopathology (Laconi and Rehbein. 2017). Males were found to favor games of strategy and action and females had an interest in games of skills ( Scharkow et al. 2015.; Rehbein et and. (2016)). Younger players were seen to be more inclined to action games, while older gamers preferred games of skill ( Scharkow et al. 2015.). It isn’t yet known to what extent the preferences of specific games are dependent on psychological functioning.

The majority of research has focused only upon violent games (e.g., Anderson and Bushman 2001, Elson and Ferguson, 2014) or a specific game in a specific category (frequently World of Warcraft; Graham and Gosling, 2013; Visser et al. (2013); Herodotou et al. 2014) which leaves out the many possible games and gaming styles across different game genres.

In this research the aim was to investigate the connection between video gaming and mental functioning in a precise way. To accomplish this we examined psychological function using various variables , including psychosocial symptoms,coping methods as well as social support. We also assessed video gaming in a similar specific manner, which ranged from (a) problematic gaming habits, (b) the reasons for gaming, and (c) the most played games. This method helped us avoid making potentially inaccurate generalizations about gaming generally and allowed us to study the range of gaming behaviors and the relationships between these habits as well as the various variables that represent the psychological function. Function Gaming Batikslot

Engaging in video games too often is a good idea for those who have a poor mental health condition because games can help people forget about the problems of their day and become absorbed in another world ( Taquet et al. 2017.). Furthermore, video games provide individuals the opportunity to connect with others socially, regardless of any apparent psychological issues they may be suffering from ( Kowert et al. 2014b; Mazurek etal. Mazurek et al. 2015). However, games that are harmful to play can also cause psychological issues because it decreases the amount of time that is spent as well as the amount of opportunities that gamers are given to experience real-world behavior ( Gentile, 2009). Therefore, we anticipated to observe an unfavorable correlation between problematic gaming and psychological functioning variables and we anticipated to find more problematic games to be associated with problems with methods of coping ( Wood and Griffith 2007) as well as negatively affected mood ( Mathiak et al. (2011)) and low academic achievement ( Mihara and Higuchi 2017.). Additionally, we expected to discover different correlates of the reasons people play video games as well as their psychological performance: Using games for escape-related reasons like distraction is likely to be associated with a variety of indicators of psychological dysfunction ( Kiraly et al. 2015) and those who play for gain-oriented motives like the storyline or social connections that are part of the game should be linked to a healthy mental health ( Longman et al. 2009.). We also expected to discover that people’s favorite games (e.g. strategy, strategy, action) to be in a different way to their psychological performance ( Park et al. (2016)). Besides, we wanted to clarify the specific impact of each measurement of psychological functioning in the forecast of problematic use of video games.

Materials and Methods


There were N 2891 people (2,421 males; 470 females) with an average time at 23.17 years ( SD = 5.99. The range was 13-65) who were part of our study. Of these, N = 2,734 (95 percent) confirmed their involvement in video games and were included in subsequent analysis (2,377 males, 357 females, and a median average age that was 23.06 years. Sd = 5.91, between 13 and 65). The pattern of participation according to gender and age is consistent with the results from previous studies, with younger people and males having a higher likelihood to engage in online games (e.g., Griffiths and co. 2004). The location of the players’ residence was Germany. Function Gaming Batikslot

Instruments as well as Instruments 

We shared the links to our online questionnaire in various online forums as well as on top gaming sites online. To ensure that the study, no exclusion criteria apart from accessibility to Internet and a basic understanding of German were set. To encourage people to take part to the research, 4 vouchers totalling 50 euros were offered for raffle.

Video Gaming

Potentially dangerous video game play

The AICA-S, also known as the Scale for assessing Internet and Computer Game Addiction ( Wolfling et al. 2016) is a tool used to determine the extent of gaming habits in relation to possible problems with their usage. It is based on DSM guidelines to diagnose Internet Gaming Disorder (tolerance, anxiety and loss of control, withdrawal, emotion regulation, ineffective attempts reduce) This self-report standardized scale has 15 items, typically using five points ranging between one ( never) to 5 ( very often). Its final scores (Min = 0 + 27 points) are calculated using weighted scoring (items that have an I-total correlation greater than 0.55 in the normal sample are weighted twice; Wolfling et al. (2011)). The AICA-S score is used to distinguish between regular (0-6.5 points) and problematic usage gaming (7-13 points for abuse; 13.5-27 points: addiction). In our study, N = 2,265 (83 percent) were classified as regular gamers as well as 469 (17%) were identified as problematic gamers. 4,69 (17 17 percent) as gamers who are problematic. The AICA-S was used as a continuous variable in the rest of our analysis ( M = 3.98, SD = 3.22. The range was between 0 and 24). It has also been tested for various age groups in the general population as well as the clinical sample ( Muller et al. 2014a, 2019; however, note the fact that the sample size is small; Muller et al. 2014b). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.70. The AICA-S score was significantly correlated with male sexuality ( r = 0.17 ***) and age ( r = -0.15 ***). Participants were playing videos for the duration of M (= 4.09 hours on a weekday ( SD = 4.44 4, The range was between 0-24) as well as an average of M = 4.21 hours per day on weekends ( SD = 2.99 2, range: 2.99, Range: 0-24).

The reasons to play

Gamers were asked the frequency with which the played games due to various reasons. They scored each of 10 reasons using Likert scales that ranged between one ( never) to 4 ( very often). The most frequent motives are relaxing (M = 2.96, SD = 0.91) and amusement (M = 2.94 + SD = 0.85) as well as because of the plot (M = 2.67 and SD = 1.10).

Game genres

Gamer’s were asked frequently if they typically played various subgenres of video games, such as first-person shooters, round-based strategy, massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) as well as life simulations and many more. The ratings were based on Likert scales that ranged between one ( never) to 4 ( very often). Based on the Apperley’s (2006) classifications of game genres, we classified subgenres under the principal genres of action (M = 2.54 and SD = 0.84) as well as strategies (M = 2.13 2, SD = 0.80) and the role of playing (M = 2.01 with SD = 0.73) and Simulation (M = 1.58 and SD = 0.44). A cluster of unclassified subgenres ( M = 1.54, SD = 0.39) was also added to include such subgenres as games of jump’n’runs or games of skills. Intercorrelations and descriptive statistics for all measurements (including gender as well as age) are provided within the Supplementary tables S1 through S4.

Function Gaming Batikslot

Psychological Functioning

Participants gave ratings on their psychological health based using the following categories:

General psychopathology

The SCL-K-9 (Klaghofer and Brahler, 2001), a short version of the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 1975), was administered to assess participants’ subjective impairment regarding psychological symptoms (somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). The score on the SCL-K-9 is strongly related to the original score of the SCL 90-R ( r = 0.93). The 9 questions were answered by a 5-point Likert scale that ranged between 1- ( do not agree with any of the answers) up to five ( agree completely). Cronbach’s Alpha was satisfactory (a 0.77). 0.77).


We evaluated 10 coping strategies using the brief COPE ( Carver, 1997; German version by Knoll and co. 2005) (which has a shorter variant of COPE ( Carver et al. 1989) self-distraction denial, use of substances venting, self-blame acceptance, behavioral disengagement proactive coping, plan as well as positive reframing. The two subscales were assessed using 5-point Likert-type scales that ranged between 1- ( never) to 5 ( very often). Intercorrelations between the two subscale items varied between 0.32 to 0.32 and p = 0.001 for reframing positive to 0.78, p 0.001 for negative reframing to 0.78, p 0.001 for using drugs (with one exception that was the r value was -0.05 and p 0.01 for self-distraction). 0.01 in self-distraction). Function Gaming Batikslot


We assessed overall affect as a characteristic and the effects of games by using our German variant ( Krohne et al. 1996) of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson and co. 1988). On a 5-point Likert-type scale that ranged all the way from to 1 ( not at all) 5 ( completely) participants evaluated how intense 20 of their adjectives. Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.78 in general affective, a 0.83 to assess general negativity, and 0.85 in positive effects during play, and 0.83 for negative effects when playing.


The test for assessing the degree of shyness in adulthood ( Asendorpf, 1997) was comprised of five items which were rated on five points on a scale that ranged in the range of one ( not at all) to 5 ( completely). Cronbach’s alpha was very high (a value of 0.86).


We conducted an assessment using the German variant ( Elbing, 1991) of the NYU Loneliness Scale ( Rubenstein and Shaver 1982). The four items were rated using 5To 6-point scales of the Likert type. Cronbach’s alpha was acceptable (a 0.79). 0.79).

A preference to be in solitude

A 10-item test of preferences for privacy ( Nestler et al. (2011)) was evaluated using a Likert scale of 6 points that ranged in the range of 1- ( not at all) to 6 ( completely). Cronbach’s Alpha was extremely high (a value of 0.86).

The satisfaction of life

Participants took part in a simple life satisfaction survey on a Likert-type scale with 4 points that ranged from one ( not at all) to 4 ( completely).


We tested our version in German. German version ( von Collani and Herzberg 2003) of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1979). The 10 items were rated using a Likert-type scale of 4 points that ranged between one ( not at all) to 4 ( completely). Cronbach’s Alpha was high (a value of 0.88).


We conducted a generalized self-efficacy test ( Schwarzer and Jerusalem 1995) that was scored on a four-point Likert-type scale that ranged in the range of 1- ( not at all) to 4 ( completely). Cronbach’s alpha was very high (a value of 0.86).

Friendship and social support

We assessed the perceived available social support subscale, which is a part of the Berlin Social Support Scales (BSSS; Schwarzer, and Schulz 2003). The 8 questions were answered by a 5-point Likert scale that ranged between one ( not at all) to 5 ( completely). Cronbach’s Alpha was extremely high (a 0.94). 0.94). Participants reported the number of offline acquaintances and acquaintances offline that they had ( r = 0.44, p less than 0.001) and the number of online acquaintances and friends that they were ( r = 0.33, p 0.33, p 0.001). Due to the left-skewed distributions, we have loggedarithmized data prior to aggregate.


Participants provided their grades points average. German grades are rated on a scale ranging between one ( excellent) to 6 ( insufficient). Therefore, higher scores suggest poorer scores.

Participants also provided information about their gender and their age. Both of these were used as control variables in later analysis.


In the initial stage, we calculated zero-order correlations between video gaming variables and indicators that measure psychological function. In the second phase we calculated partial correlations where we controlled for gender and age, as previous studies have repeatedly demonstrated that age and sex are associated with both games played on video ( Homer et al. 2012.; Mihara and Higuchi 2017.) as well as psychological function ( Kessler et al. 2007; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012). In the final step, we examined the specific impact of each of the measures of psychological functioning on predictions of risky video gaming. We therefore computed regressions using problematic game play as the variable dependent, and age, sex and psychosocial functioning to determine predictors (entered in the same analysis of regression). Through this process it was possible to assess the impact that each variable had over the other variables. In particular, we could discern whether general psychopathology could be associated with dangerous games played in video games in the event that the impact of all the other factors (e.g.,, loneliness, shyness, and many others) was constant. Function Gaming Batikslot

Furthermore, we conducted studies on sex and age distinctions in the connection between video games and the psychological state. Because we gathered an anonymous sample in which various sexes and age groups weren’t equally represented, the results are preliminary, but could be a source of inspiration for future research.

Function Gaming Batikslot

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The Association Between Video Gaming and Psychological Functioning-Function Gaming Batikslot

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